The improvement of a synthesis perovskite materials with using long thermal annealing

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are widely used in optoelectronic applications such as flat panel displays, solar cells and thin-film photovoltaics. Therefore, the rapid increase in the use of TCO materials will continue. Perovskite oxides of the general formula ABO3, such as CaSnO3, have shown their potential as sustainable alternative to conventionally used TCOs.

Powders of the perovskite materials.

The main purpose of my project is to synthesise different ABO3 (A=Ba, Ca, Sn; B=Mn, Sn, Ti) materials with an emphasis on the thorough structural characterization of these materials (using X-Ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectrometry) for samples prepared with different time of annealing.

Ideally, we aim to gain a better insight into stable and/or metastable perovskite structures (and the validity of Goldschmidt’s rule under this regime) which may suggest routes to novel TCO materials. 



Karolina Łempicka

HZB – Summer Student Program 2017

Nanostructure Engineering Student

Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw




  1. Very interesting project. I like your image, it was a good idea just to show a series of these perovskites. The text gives a good introduction. But I got then a bit confused, I had to read twice in order to see that you are not working on those metal organic perovskites which are now widely used in solar cells but on the “classic” anorganic mineral ones. And of course, I do not know Goldschmidt’s rule.

  2. I hope that you will present your topic at final talks.

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