Photograph of a kesterite pulver made with a microscope. The white grain in the middle displays a non-kesterite secondary phase.

Influence of a thermal annealing procedure on kesterites

Kesterite is a mineral with a formular Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4. It is a very promising material for future photovoltaics (PV), since the composition is non-toxic and the source materials are very cheap in relevance to other PV-materials.

The main goal of the project is to observe a change in the structure or the composition of the material after a thermal annealing procedure. In a thermal annealing the material is heated up to a few degrees under the melting point to alter the chemical and/or physical properties.

The material is characterized by X-ray pulver diffractometrie (XRD) and wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (WDX) before and after the annealing. A diversity in the samples can be observed.


Daniel Fridrich

The autor:

Daniel Fridrich
HZB-Summerstudent 2017



  1. Wonderful picture, good and telling headline and a very clear text! Well done.

  2. Hi Daniel, thanks for this very short introduction and the lovely photo of the kesterite pulver. I really like it!

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